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The 8 biggest COVID-19 vaccine myths

At times, it can be hard to separate fact from fiction

Two women wearing hoodies and mask bump elbows in a covid-safe greeting
Two women wearing hoodies and mask bump elbows in a covid-safe greeting

For the latest information about COVID-19 vaccines in Australia, please visit the Australian Government Department of Health website.

There’s so much information out there about the COVID-19 vaccine – at times, it can be hard to separate fact from fiction.

Some of the false information is spreading quickly and widely on social media. So with the help of nib Group Chief Medical Officer Dr Mellissa Naidoo, we’re debunking some of the biggest COVID-19 vaccine myths.

Myth 1: The COVID-19 vaccine can give you COVID-19

Fact: COVID-19 vaccines do not contain the live virus or even the whole virus that causes COVID-19, so no, they can’t give you COVID-19.

Most vaccines use a component of the coronavirus (usually the spike protein) to trigger an immune response in your body so that you start to produce immune cells and antibodies against the virus.

You may experience some minor side effects, such as a mild fever or fatigue as part of this immune response but it doesn’t mean you have developed the disease.

Find out more about how the COVID-19 vaccine works.

Myth 2: The COVID-19 vaccines were developed quickly, so they are not safe

Fact: COVID-19 vaccines may have been developed in record-breaking time, but there have been no short-cuts in safety assessments.

Any vaccine approved for use in Australia has to go through the normal rigorous safety checks of the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA).

Every vaccine is evaluated for its safety and effectiveness. The TGA reviews the raw data and results of all vaccine trials. Plus, every batch of vaccines to be used in Australia will be tested for quality here in Australia.

For more information, the Australian Government Department of Health and TGA websites have detailed information on how vaccines are tested and approved in Australia.

“It can be confusing to know which information sources are trustworthy, so it’s best to stick to official public health websites to ensure you are accessing the most reliable, verified and up to date information,” Dr Naidoo says.

“If members do have any concerns, we encourage them to talk these through with their GP or trusted health professional. They can help separate fact from fiction and provide further information specific to their circumstances.”

A senior woman wearing a mask about to get the COVID-19 vaccine

Myth 3: The vaccines have common serious and dangerous side effects

Fact: Serious side effects have been very uncommon so far with both approved Australian vaccines – the Pfizer and AstraZeneca variants.

The Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI) has carefully considered the latest vaccination findings out of Europe and the UK, where there have been extremely rare instances of people developing a very specific syndrome involving blood clots with low platelet counts after receiving the AstraZeneca vaccine.

Studies have suggested it may occur in approximately 4-6 people in every one million people in the 4-20 days after the first dose of vaccine. However, higher rates have been reported in Germany and some Scandinavian countries.

As a result, ATAGI has recommended the COVID-19 Pfizer vaccine is preferred over the AstraZeneca vaccine for adults aged under 60 years.

This recommendation is based on the increasing risk of severe outcomes from COVID-19 in older adults – and hence a higher benefit from vaccination – and a potentially increased risk of blood clots following AstraZeneca vaccination among those aged under 60.

For more information, please visit the Department of Health.

In addition, everyone in Australia will be screened for potential allergies or problems before they are vaccinated, using a safety checklist. And you will also have to remain at the place of vaccination afterwards to be monitored for at least 15 minutes.

Mild side effects are common after any vaccine shot and it’s no different with COVID vaccines. Some common (but short-term) side effects of the vaccines are pain/swelling at the injection site, fever, muscle aches, fatigue and headache. These are signs the vaccine is working to stimulate your immune system.

Myth 4: Once you have had your vaccine shots you no longer need to take COVID precautions

Fact: The COVID vaccines are only one part of Australia’s overall strategy to get back to a new normal.

Initially, we will still need to continue with physical distancing, regular hand washing, and (in some situations) mask wearing.

Some of these control measures may be reduced once the vaccine program is fully rolled out.

Myth 5: The flu shot will protect me from COVID-19

Fact: Immunisation against influenza will not protect you against COVID-19.

If a person was infected with both the flu and COVID-19 it could be serious, so make sure to still get your annual flu vaccination.

Dr Naidoo says while the flu vaccine won’t protect you against COVID-19, it will reduce your risk of getting the flu and associated complications.

“During this pandemic, you want to remain as fit and healthy as possible and vaccination is an important preventative tool,” she advises.

“In addition to getting vaccinated, adhering to simple and effective measures such as good hand and respiratory hygiene, physical distancing and isolating when unwell, is just as important to protect ourselves and our community from transmission of infectious disease.”

Just remember, there should be at least a seven day gap between your flu jab and any of your COVID-19 shots.

Related: Everything you need to know about the 2023 flu vaccine

Myth 6: The COVID-19 vaccines will modify my DNA

Fact: None of the COVID vaccines will modify your DNA.

The Pfizer vaccine is a messenger RNA vaccine (also called mRNA). The mRNA from the vaccine doesn’t enter the nucleus of our cells – where our DNA is kept. The mRNA is expressed for a short time and then our cells degrade it, so there is no way that the vaccine can modify your DNA.

The AstraZeneca vaccine is a viral vector vaccine – it uses a harmless, weakened animal virus to introduce the genetic code for the COVID-19 spike protein into our cells. The genetic code for the spike protein does not become part of our DNA.

Myth 7: I’ve already had COVID-19 so I don’t need to get the vaccine

Fact: It’s not known how strong natural immunity is after a person has had the COVID-19 infection and how long it lasts.

It varies from person to person.

“There are severe health risks associated with COVID-19 and members who have had COVID-19 should still get vaccinated to help protect them against the possibility of re-infection,” says Dr Naidoo.

When it comes to new variants, previous infection may not provide any protection. That’s what is being seen in South Africa where people have been re-infected by a new variant that is now the dominant form of the virus there.

If you're one of the very small minority of Australians who have already had COVID-19, your natural immunity may not be enough to protect you from getting COVID-19 again.

As Dr Naidoo points out, “Vaccination is still beneficial even if you’ve had COVID-19, as the vaccine effectively tops up immunity and could protect you for longer against re-infection.”

Myth 8: The media is spreading misinformation about COVID-19 vaccines

Fact: The reputation of mainstream media outlets depends on reporting accurate information.

Trained journalists rely on official medical and scientific advice from trained health professionals to inform their articles.

Fake news and misinformation published by questionable websites and journals can make it difficult to decipher what’s real and what isn’t, particularly when it’s also shared on social media.

Reading, listening to or watching news on trusted Australian news sites that communicate the advice and updates provided by official government and medical sources is a smart way to ensure the information you’re consuming about COVID-19 vaccines is correct and based on reliable evidence.

Verifying any concerns you have with your medical practitioner can also provide
reassurance and help separate fact from fiction.

To find out the latest on the COVID-19 vaccines and their rollout from the most reliable source, visit The Australian Government Department of Health’s COVID-19 vaccines website. Here you can also sign up for updates on the progress of the rollout.

For more information about the vaccine, check out our article questions about the vaccine.

Please note: The information throughout this article should not replace any advice you have been given by your medical practitioner.